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entirely what he is made by education: from which some of them
inferred, quite legitimately, that as the character of the State
depends on the kind of education its citizens receive, the commit-
ment of education to the State is an essential condition of any
thorough-going reform to Society. Those who regarded the
reaction of the mind on its sensory experience as all-important,
on the other hand, while not ignoring the social consequences of
education, laid the main stress on the nature of the individual
undergoing training, and made the primary aim of education not
the production of the perfect citizen but the production of the
perfect man.

The two points of view, as soon became evident, were not
easy to reconcile in practice; but however much they might seem
to conflict the circumstances of the age made it impossible for
either of them to be ignored. The continuance of misrule in
France as the century went on, deepened the passion for freedom
and gave new force to the sense of individual worth, irrespective
of social class, which had been in large measure created by the
burning eloquence of Rousseau; and the conviction steadily
grew, in advance of Rousseau himself, that every person, whether
rich or poor, ought to receive an education that would make the
most of the powers he possessed. Side by side with this indivi-
dualistic doctrine there developed a firm belief that the way of
social salvation was to be found in a national education which
would prepare everyone for the service of the State, The two
ideals of education for manhood and education for citizenship,
thus sharply opposed, continued to develop along independent
lines till the attempt was made to bring them together in the
educational schemes of the Revolution.


Before proceeding to follow out in detail these two tendencies
in French educational thought, it will be convenient to consider
some of the earlier applications of the sensationalist philosophy,
characteristic of the Enlightenment, to education. And here it
must first be noted that Condillac and Helvfetius, the philosophers
whose work is of special moment in this connection, like others
of their school, were long in developing an interest in education.